WHAT: comprises the coastal areas of seas, estuaries, bays, creeks, rivers and backwaters that are-
(a) coastal area of sea influenced by tidal action upto 500 metres from the High Tide Line(HTL),
(b) the area between the Low Tide Line (LTL) and High Tide Line termed as inter-tidal zone,
(c) for water bodies connected to the sea (river, estuaries, backwaters, lakes etc) CRZ will apply to the land area between HTL and 100 metres or the width of the creek/river, whichever is lesser. The length of water body to be covered under CRZ is that which is affected by tidal action of the sea.
(d) Water area upto 12 nautical miles into the sea. And the entire water-area of a tidal water body like rivers, estuaries etc. [Thus CRZ deals with pollution of water bodies as well]
OBJECTIVES of CRZ:
- to ensure livelihood security of fisherfolk and other local communities living in coastal areas
- conserve and protect the unique environment of coastal stretches
- to promote development through sustainable manner
- to take account of natural hazards in coastal areas-such as sea-level rising
DETAILS: Certain activities are prohibited in this zone:
- setting up and expansion of industries except those directly related to water front and projects of the Department of Atomic Energy,
- setting up and expansion of waste-disposal facilities, except those involving discharge of treated effluents into water body with required approvals
- manufacture, handling, storage or disposal of hazardous substances, except transfer of hazardous substance from ships to ports, terminals, refineries and vice-versa.
- Land reclamation, bunding or disturbing the natural course of the sea except that required for port construction/expansion and related activities. Reclamation for commercial purposes not permitted.
- Mining of sand, rocks, substrata material except those rare minerals not available outside the coastal zone (eg. monazite, ilmenite along Kerala coasts).
Activities that are permitted will also be stringently regulated and monitored. All activities sought to be conducted in the CRZ will have to apply for clearance from the Coastal Zone Management Authority. All state governments having CRZs will have to prepare Coastal Zone Management Plans.
For operational purposes CRZs have been further classified. Its interesting to note some of them:
- Mangroves, Coral reefs, Marine parks, Sand Dunes, Mud flats, Salt marshes, Sea-Grass beds, Turtle-nesting Grounds, Horse-shoe Crab’s habitat, Nesting Grounds of Birds, Areas or structures of archaeological importance (eg: Shore Temples of Mahabalipuram
- Some areas have been notified as Critically Vulnerable Coastal Areas (CVCA) like Sunderban Mangroves, Gulfs of Khambat and Kuchch, Karwar (Karnataka), Bhaitarkanika (Salt-water Crocodile National Park, Orissa), Coringa and East Godavari Mangroves (AP), Vembanad Lake, (longest lake in India, Vembanad wetland system included in the Ramsar Convention, Kerala)
- Special Relaxations to some coastal areas like Mumbai- renovation of buildings, building and repair of roads in CRZ will be allowed. This is with special reference to problems of fishermen living in dilapidated and underdeveloped chawls and slums along the coast. Participation of the community and government essential in any development activity here.
NOTE: Demolition of Adarsh Housing Society was ordered by MoEF on grounds of violation of the CRZ Rules.
CRZ Notification 2011. moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/CRZ-Notification-2011.pdf