Wednesday, 25 April 2012

Sanctuaries and Key Species

Nauradehi Wildlife Sanctuary (MP- largest sanctuary of state)
Indian Wolf
Hoolongapur Gibbon Sanctuary (Assam)
Hoolock Gibbons (India’s only gibbons) and Bengal Slow Loris (
Nelapattu  (Andhra P) – bird sanctuary
Pelican’s nesting ground. Also the sanctuary is India’s only freshwater swamp forest
Dibang Valley (Arunachal P
Mishmi Ginat flying squirrel was recently discovered here.
Changthang (J&K) – cold desert
Tibetan wild ass, Black-necked crane
Sathyamangalam (TN-largest sanctuary of state)- a significant corridor between eastern and western ghats
Tigers, Elephants (largest elephant numbers of India), also home to threatened vultures
Lion and wild ass
Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (uttarakhand)
Himalayan Musk Deer
Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary
Tiger Reserve
Simlipal National Park (Orissa)
Tiger Reserve, Elephants and Gaur
Narayan Sarovar Sanctuary (Gujarat)
Chinkara. Also this has been identified by the Wildlife Institute of India for the possible reintroduction of Cheetah in India.
Ratapani Reserve (MP)
Tiger Reserve. One of the finest teak forests of India. Bhimbetka rock paintings are within this reserve
Pakhui Tiger Reserve (Arunachal P)
Tigers. This sanctuary adjoins the Sessa Orchid Sanctuary and Eaglenest Bird Sanctuary.
Satkosia Tiger Reserve (Orissa)
Kolleru Wildlife Sanctuary(Andhra P)- Kolleru Lake lies b/w Krishna and Godavari. A Ramsar site too.
Hosts migratory birds like pelicans, Siberian crane and painted story among others
National Chambal sanctuary (UP+MP+Raj)
Gharial, Ganges river dolphins, Red-crowned roof turtle
Rollapadu wildlife sanctuary (Andhra P)
Great Indian Bustard,
Askote Sanctuary (Uttarakhand)
Musk Deer
Melghat Sanctuary (Maharashtra)
Tiger Reserve (amongst the first 9 tiger reserves of the country)
Kumbhalgarh Sanctuary (Rajasthan)
Tiger Reserve
Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Reserve (Karnataka)
Tiger Reserve
Sri Venkateswara National Park (Andhra P)
Indian flying squirrel, Golden Gecko apart from Tigers etc
Dampa Tiger Reserve (Mizoram)
Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary (TN)
Bhadra Tiger Reserve (Kar)
Shenbagathoppu Wildlife Reserve (TN)
Grizzled Giant Squirrel. (also found in Chinnar Reserve of TN)
Periyar National Park and Wildlfe Sanctruary
Tigers, Elephants
Overa-Aru (J&K)
Hangul, Musk deer
Sharavathi Valley Wildlife Sanctuary
Lion-tailed Macaque
Manas National Park
Tiger, Pygmy Hog (found only in Manas), Golden Langur
Pong  Dam Sanctuary- Ramsar wetland site
Bar-headed Geese
Pamed Wild Buffalo Sanctuary (Chhatisgarh)
Wild Buffalo- whose numbers are feared to be below 1000
Udanti Wild Buffalo sanctuary (Chhatisgarh)
Wild Buffalo
Jaldapara Sanctuary (WB)
Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros (has largest numbes of rhinos in WB)
Abohar Wildlife Sanctuary (Punjab)- private sanctuary spread across Bishnoi villages
Black Buck
Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary (TN)
A Crocodile farm, set up in 1977 at Neyyar, is home to 44 mugger crocodiles. The Steve Irwin Crocodile Rehabilitation and Research Centre was inaugurated at Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary in May 2007
Bhitarkanika Sanctuary (Orissa)- Ramsar site (comprises Bhitarkaanika, Gahirmatha & Kalibhanjadian)
Saltwater Crocodiles (largest population in India). Also largest contiguous mangrove forest of India. 'Baga Gahan' is a monsoon activity which sees nesting of thousands of aquatic birds together.
Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary (Orissa)
Nesting beach for Olive Ridley Turtles.
Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary (Sikkim)
Rhododendron flowers
Fambhong Lho sanctuary (Sikkim)
Himalayan black bear, red panda, civets
Harike Wetland- Ramsar site
Bird sanctuary
Ken Gharial Sanctuary ((MP)- near Panna; b/w Ken and Khudar rivers
Gharial Sanctuary .
Deepor Beel lake –(Assam)- Ramsar site
Bird sanctuary
Pobitora wildlife Sanctuary (Assam)
Ghataprabha Sanctuary (Kar)
Demoiselle cranes, European white stork
Mahananda wildlife sanctuary (WB)
Indian Bison, Tiger
Vallanadu Wildlife Sanctuary (TN)
Blackbuck Antelope. It is southernmost area where blackcuck exists naturally.

Desert National Park (Jaisalmer, Raj)- one of the largest national parks of India. Excellent example of Thar ecosystem
Great Indian Bustard, Migratory Birds, Blackbuck,  Also has fossils of dinosaurs.
Gulf of Mannar National Park (core area of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve)- comprises estuaries, mudflats, mangroves, coral reefs, salt marshes,
Dugong (marine mammal looks like a sea cow, is the flagship mammal of the park), Green Turtles, Olive Ridley Turtles are vulnerable species of the area.
Keibul Lamjao National Park (the largest phumdi of the Loktak Lake in Manipur).  Loktak lake is the largest freshwater lake of NE India. It is also called the only Floating Lake of the world (because of floating phumdism which are decomposed plant materials). Loktak Lake is a Ramsar site.
Sangai (dancing deer/ Eld’s Deer/Brow-antlered Deer) is the flagship species of the park.
Hokersar wetland (J&K)
Migratory birds from Siberia etc
Dachigam National Park (J&K)
Hangul (Kashmir Stag) most famous species of this park.
Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary (Pune, MH)
Indian Giant Squirrel (its conservation is the main focus of the sanctuary)
Katepurna Sanctuary (Akola, MH)
Four-horned antelope and Barking Deer
Naigaon Peacock Sanctuary (Beed, MH)
Peacock conservation.
Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary (Haryana)- Shivalik foothills
Bird sactuary
Rajaji National Park (uttarakhand)- shivalik foothills
Tigers, Elephants (largest number of elephants in state)
Simbalbara Wildlife Sanctuary (Sirmour, HP)
Sambhar, Chital- deers. Also has dense Sal forest.
Shoolpaneshwar (Guj)
Dumkhal/Sloth Bears

Manjeera Wildlife Sanctuary (AP)
Marsh Crocodiles/ Muggermach
Sri Lankamalleswar Sanctuary (AP)
Jerdon’s Courser
Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (Bhagalpur,Bihar)
Only sanctuary for Gangetic Dolphins. They have been noted as the National Aquatic Animal of India
Gulf of Kutch Marine National Park
Dugong, Finless Porpoise, Corals
Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary- Little Rann of Kutch
Indian Wild Ass
Hokera wetland (Jhelum Basin, J&K) –Ramsar site

Tso Moriri wetland (J&K)- Ramsar site
Only breeding ground for Bar-headed Geese in India
Silent Valley National Park (Palakkad,Kerala)- core of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
Lion-tailed Macaque, Nilgirir Langur, Malabar Giant Squirrel, Nilgiri Tahr (goat family)
Jorepokhri Wildlife Sanctuary (Darjeeling,WB)
Himalayan Newt/ Salamander
National Park for Clouded Leopard (Tripura)
Only sanctuary for Clouded Leopard in the country
Baghmara Pitcher Plant Sanctuary (Meghalaya)
For conservation of Pitcher Plant
Chilka Bird Sancturay (Orissa)                                       Siberian migratory birds, Errawadi river dolphin


Tuesday, 24 April 2012

Critically endangered species of India

Critically endangered is the highest risk category assigned by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) re d lIs t to wild species. There are  five quantitative criteria to determine whether a taxon is threatened. A taxon is  critically endangered when the best availabile evidence indicates that it meets any of the following criteria:
I.     Populations have declined or will decrease, by greater than 80% over the last 10 or three generations.
II.   Have a restricted geographical range.
III.  Small population size of less than 250 individuals and continuing decline at 25% in 3 years or one generation.
IV.   Very small or restricted population of fewer than 50 mature individuals.
V.    High probability of extinction in the wild.

As per the latest (2011) quantitative evaluation done by the International Union for  Conservation of Nature (IUCN) there are 57 critically endangered species of animals in India. A few of them (which I found relevant) are listed below.

Jerdon’s Courser
Sri Lankamaleshwara Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra P.
Only in northern A.P.
Scrub jungle
Forest Owlet
Southern MP, NW  and N Central Maharashtra,
Dry Deciduous Forest
White bellied Heron
Assam, Arunachal P., Bhutan, Myanmar
Rivers with sand or gravel bars
White backed Vulture

All over India. A major threat to vultures is the painkiller diclofenac used by veterinarians to treat cattle.
Slender-billed Vulture

Long billed Vulture

Red-headed vulture

Bengal Florican- type of Bustard
Only in 3 countries: Cambodia, Nepal and India (UP, Assam, Arunachal P.)
Grasslands interspersed with scrubland
Siberian Crane
Keoladeo National Park, Raj.


Pygmy Hog (world’s smallest wild pig)
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary

Andaman White-toothed Shrew, Jenkin’s Andaman Spiny Shrew, Nicobar white-tailed shrew (rats)
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. These are endemic to India

Namdapha Flying Squirrel
Found only in Namdapha Tiger Reserve (Arunachal P)

Malabar Civet

Western Ghats. Endemic to India.


National  Chambal Sanctuary(UP+MP+Raj)
Small populations in Son, Gandak, Hooghly and Ghagra Rivers
Clean rives with sand banks
Hawksbill Turtle
Nest in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and beaches of Tamil Nadu.

Leatherback Turtle (largest sea-turtle)

-Tropical and sub-tropical oceans.

Listed from a GoI report (2011)