The landlocked mountainous region of Nagorno-Karabakh is the subject of an unresolved dispute between Azerbaijan, in which it lies, and its ethnic Armenian majority, backed by neighbouring Armenia.
In 1988, towards the end of Soviet rule, Azerbaijani troops and Armenian secessionists began a bloody war which left the de facto independent state in the hands of ethnic Armenians when a truce was signed in 1994.
Negotiations have so far failed to produce a permanent peace agreement, and the dispute remains one of post-Soviet Europe's "frozen conflicts."
In News because this was one of the tricky issues before the Tehran NAM Summit in August 2012. In May 2012, NAM adopted a final document, which reaffirms the importance of resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict based on three internationally recognized principles - through negotiations, respect for Azerbaijan's territorial integrity and non-use of force.